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SALAHADDIN AL-AYYUBI (1137/38-93)

The great Kurdish Muslim leader of the 12th century, soldier of Allah.
Salahaddin AyyubiThe grave of salahadin Ayyubi in damascusSalahaddin Ayyubi

Salahaddin Al-Ayyubi was born in 1137 or 1138 in Takrit, Mesopotamia. He grew up in Aleppo, Ba` lbek, and Damascus. As a teenager he showed more inclination to become a Muslim scholar than a soldier. His military career began when he joined the staff of his uncle, Asad Addinin Sherko, a commander under the governor of Mosul.
The Fatimid's Khilafat (297-564hijri/910-1168C), named to Fatima Al-Zahra, the prophet Mohammed(SAW)'s daughter, the mother of Imam Hussein bin Ali bin Abi Talib, established in Morroco following the Shiite claims that the Khilafa should belong to to hussein bin Ali bin Abi Talib's descendants. The most glamorous claimants was Abi Abdullah Al-Shi'i, who controlled most of north Africa, and offered the power to Ubeidullah Al-Mahdi to travel to Morroco to start the ruling. Ubeidullah Al-Mahdi, has appopinted his son Abu Al-Qasim as a successor and afer him Khalifa Al-Mansour has ruled the third fatimi's Khilafa. When he died, his son Al-Muaz Al-Din Allah AlFatimi has succeeded him. He gathered an army led by Jawhar Al-saqali and attached Egypt without any resistance. On the year 358hijri/968C, Jawhar Al-Saqli has built the town of Cairo and has built Al-Azhar Mosque, to be the centre of the Shiites, and he has also built a huge wall around the city. Then he attched Al-Sham and Hijaz to Fatimid rules and called the Khalifa Al-Muaz Al-Din to attend and to take Cairo as a new capital for his rule. After Al-Muaz's era, a few other Khalifa's have succeeded him,, The Fatimid's Khilafat has very weakened as a result of famine and power struggle between Shawir and Dhurdham, over who to become a vizier. One has invited the Christians Crusaders to help and the other the ruler of Mosul (Niniva), Nuraddin Mahmud, who sent an army led by Asad Addin Sherko, Salahaddin's Uncle. Salahaddin was a warrior in that army. Top
Nuraddin Mahmud, has succeeded in protecting Egypt from Crusaders threats and Nuraddin has appointed himself the vizier of Egypt. . When his uncle died, Saladin--at age 31--was appointed commander of the troops and vizier of Egypt. In 1171 he abolished the Fatimid Caliphate of Egypt and became the country's sole ruler (Ayyubi ruling (567-648hijri/1171-1250C).. From 1174 to 1186 Saladin pursued the goal of uniting Egypt, Syria, Palestine, and northern Mesopotamia under his flag. He accomplished this mostly by diplomacy, but he used force when necessary.During the First Crusade Christian warriors from Europe captured most of Palestine and its chief city, Jerusalem. After holding the city for 88 years, it was taken from them on Oct. 2, 1187, by the armies of Saladin, the most famous of Muslim military heroes. He turned the military balance in his favor by 1187 and threw his armies against the Christian knights. He destroyed one of their armies near Tiberias and then went on to conquer Acre, Toron, Beirut, Sidon, Nazareth, Caesarea, Nabulus, Jaffa, and Ascalon. Finally he captured Jerusalem. Saladin's conquest was civilized and magnanimous.

His most important battle is called Hittin, where the Christians Crusaders were badly defeated. He attached other Muslim capitals under his rules as Festat, Al-Asker and Al-Qatai'i and circled the with a huge wall. He has also built a Castle called Al-jabal. The Christians were left with the well-fortified city of Tyre as their last major outpost in the Middle East. Saladin's achievement spurred Europe to launch the Third Crusade, which failed to undo Saladhadin's conquests. After defeating the last of the new crusaders in October 1192, Salahaddin returned to Damascus. He died there on March 4, 1193.

He was known as a very great personality, brave, wise, just, noble, honorable with the people and meeting the people of knowledge and religion. He spent the hole life in Jihad (holy war), for his people. He died at the age of 55. After his death, the Ayyubi ruling remained strong for decades and the Christians were retreated from Al-Mansoura and the french king Louise 18th were captured by Muslims. The power, then was handed to the leader of Mamalik Izzeddin Aybak, this was the start of the Mamalik ruling. Mamalik were contributing most of Salahaddin's army and the were mixture of the Kurds, the Charkas and the Turks. Top

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